By J. Elliott
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Additional info for An Introduction to Sustainable Development: 2nd Edition (Routledge Introductions to Development)
Rather, comprehensive, longerterm solutions were required, based on packages of broad policy reforms in indebted nations. The term structural adjustment programme (SAP) is used to refer to the generic activities of the IMF and WB in the arena of policy reform. The central objective of SAPs as defined by the World Bank is to ‘modify the structure of an economy so that it can maintain both its growth rate and the viability of its balance of payments in the medium term’ (Reed, 1996: 41). , 1996: 265).
Currently, these areas remain valued sites, among other things for housing and tourism development. 2 Lands cleared for agriculture using fire, Indonesia Source: Rebecca Elmhirst, University of Brighton. arable land are being converted to urban uses annually (World Resources Institute, 1996). As a result, agricultural production often becomes more intense to compensate for losses and/or is pushed into more unsuited areas, becoming potentially more damaging in turn. Furthermore, urban developments expand onto steep slopes or wetland areas and threaten remaining natural vegetation such as mangrove forests.
Where the rate of waste generation exceeds the natural capacity of the atmosphere, oceans, vegetation or soils to absorb these, detrimental effects occur on human health and on the operation of ecological systems. In 1991, the first deaths from air pollution in Britain for more than thirty years occurred in London, where smog levels due to traffic fumes built up over four particularly windless days in December and 160 people died as a result (Bown, 1994). There is also the ongoing challenge of finding the space to dispose of solid wastes, including those produced through domestic consumption.
An Introduction to Sustainable Development: 2nd Edition (Routledge Introductions to Development) by J. Elliott